The aim of this capacity building program is to improve the efficiency and positive impact of urban, community-managed water and sanitation schemes. The material is especially relevant for communities who have a relationship with the main water services provider and who are also committed to hiring an operations manager. The operations manager should be a paid employee and his/her performance should be reviewed by the beneficiaries. The manual covers technical issues such as operations and maintenance activities-but also has a strong focus on institutional, managerial and financial issues. The manual also aims to clarify the roles and responsibilities of all stakeholders. The courses in this training manual are based on participatory training methodologies, an important feature of which is to draw on the experiences of all the participants, under the guidance of an experienced facilitator. However, where possible, the trainer should encourage sharing of ideas and experiences throughout the training.