• performance-based contracts
  • non-revenue water

Non Revenue Water Case Study: Ensuring Water Supply in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

Organization Private-Public Infrastructure Advisory Board (PPIAF) and World Bank Group
Author PPIAF and World Bank Group
Year 2018
Topics Drinking Water Systems, Water and Information and Communication Technology, Urban Water Management
Level of action Water & Sanitation services/ Utility level


In 1998, Kuala Lumpur, the capital of Malaysia and home to 1.5 million people, was running out of water. Water was rationed for five months. To end this crisis, the State Waterworks Department hired a contractor under a performance-based contract to reduce non-revenue water. This case study shares lessons learned and key takeaways from the experience.