Explanation notes for International Statistics for Water Services – Tokyo 2018
Definitions and calculations
- Total country population: Average number of permanent residents living in the country (or other political entity).
- Population served by water supply: Population served by public drinking water supply. All the self-suppliers (by own springs or wells) should be excluded.
- Average household size: The average number of people living in one household.
- Total water abstraction: Annual volume of water abstraction from any source with the purpose of public water supply. Note: Included are mine water, drainage water, private water abstraction by industry, agriculture and households. Rainwater harvesting is excluded. In case of ground water recharge, only the abstracted volume of ground water is relevant, not the injected volume of (surface) water.
- Surface water: Annual volume of water abstraction from natural and artificial watercourses such as rivers, streams, brooks, lakes, ponds, canals etc. as well surface water used for ground water recharge. Note: Sea water and transitional waters such as brackish swamps, lagoons and estuarine areas are not considered fresh surface water.
- Ground water: Annual volume of water abstraction from underground deposits of water, naturally charged. Note: Abstraction of river groundwater, naturally present in the underground via river bank infiltration, is included.
- Spring water: Annual volume of water abstraction from springs.
- Other sources: Annual volume of drinking water production by desalination, water reuse, large scale rain water harvesting etc.
- Imported water from abroad: Annual volume of water abstraction : imported water from abroad.
- Annual water consumption: Annual volume of metered and non-metered drinking water used by the served population.
- Annual water consumption for households: Annual volume of water consumption by households for domestic consumption. For example drinking, food preparation, bathing, washing clothes and dishes, flushing toilets, car washing, watering lawns and gardens. Measured and unmeasured volumes are concerned.
- Annual water consumption for small business: Annual volume of water consumption by small businesses included commercial water consumption which can be separated from residential water consumption. Mixed residential/commercial properties where the commercial part predominates, must also be included here. Measured and unmeasured volumes are concerned.
- Industry and other billed water consumption: Annual volume of water consumption by industry.
- Unbilled water consumption: Annual volume of unbilled water consumption.
- Exported drinking water: Annual volume of exported drinking water to abroad.
- Fixed charges on drinking water: Service charge or fixed bill component (not related to consumption) on drinking water.
Environmental charges: The sum of sewerage and waste water treatment.
Explanation notes for graphs and tables concerning abstraction
- data 2014/2015: The data provided is based on that collected as part of the Urban National Performance Report (Urban NPR) data. The report collects data on a financial year basis (1/72014-30/6/2015) for utilities with more than 10 000 connections. As such it does not represent all of Australia’s water industry but a large part of it.
- Data 2016/2017: The data provided is based on the 2017 Urban National Performance Report, which covers the 1 July 2016-30 June 2017 period. The report collects data from 87 utilities across Australia. Please note that the report only collects data from utilities with greater than 10 000 connected properties and hence the data does not represent all utilities.
- Other sources in 2014: Volume of water sourced from desalination of marine water and a volume of water sourced from recycling.
- Other sources in 2016: -160 mio m³ unused backflow from springs into nature (not calculated in the figure).
- Figure in 2016 of year 2015.
- Chinese taiwan
- Other sources in 2014 and 2016: sea water.
- Other sources in 2014: desalination of 32,85 mio m³ and recycled for agriculture for 20 mio m³.
- Other sources in 2016: desalination of 68,7 mio m³ and recycled for agriculture for 18 mio m³.
- England & Wales
- Other sources in 2014: tidal.
- Other sources in 2016: river bed filtration.
- Other sources in 2014: mostly salt water.
- Other sources in 2016: sea water desalination, etc.
- The total groundwater abstraction figure of 2014 and 2016 provided includes: brine reject from groundwater polishing plants and groundwater returned to the environment due to any discharges/washouts at boreholes and pumping stations.
- Other sources in 2014 and 2016: desalination.
- Other sources in 2016: irrigation in agriculture and forestry.
- Data of 2016 from the Russian Water Resources Inventory.
- Other sources in 2014 and 2016: desalination.
- Including Liechtenstein.
- Data of 2014 for regional water utilities only.
- Groundwater in 2014: boreholes 19% of total abstraction.
- Springwater in 2014: 17% of total water abstraction.
- Surface water in 2014: 64% of total water abstraction.
Explanation notes for graphs and tables concerning water delivered, population and connection rates
- Water delivered for households in 2016: small business and industry are included.
- Water delivered for industry in 2014: volume of water supplied for commercial, municipal and industrial use. Including volume for agricultural irrigation.
- Data of population and connection rates in 2014: The data provided is based on that collected as part of the Urban National Performance Report (Urban NPR) data. The report collects data on a financial year basis (1/72014-30/6/2015) for utilities with greater than 10 000 connections. As such it does not represent all of Australia’s water industry but a large part of it.
- Sewerage connection rate in 2014: Number of persons living in properties connected to a public sewerage system leading to a treatment plant. Not included 45 539 000 inhabitants in properties served by septic tank.
- Data of 2014 and 2016: China mainland, only statistics for 665 cities, the small towns, countries and rural areas haven’t been included in the statistics.
- Chinese Taiwan
- Decrease of waste water connection rate 2014-2016: The population served for waste water treatment is decreased from 16,4 mio inhabitants (data of 2014) to 12,4 mio inhabitants in 2016. The key person said the calculated factor (average people per family) had been changed from 4,0 to 3,01 from 2016.
- Delivered in 2016: estimates based on 4 participants’proportion of consumption.
- Industry & other billed consumption in 2014: included consumption for agriculture 174 mio m³.
- Sewerage and wastewater connection rates in 2014 and 2016: small communities and municipalities not included.
- England & Wales
- Small business in 2014 included in industry.
- Small business in 2016 included in households.
- Industry in 2014: includes all non-households consumption, including small business.
- Small business in 2014 included in households.
- Regarding the sewerage, exclude the service population of 2 prefectures which have evacuation areas by the accidents of nuclear power plants. Therefore, the coverage ratio of sewerage is as follows: 93 547 831/123 350 023 = 75,8%.
- Unbilled water consumption and water losses in 2014 and 2016 includes leakages (technical losses).
- Unbilled water consumption and water losses in 2014 includes leakages.
- Small business in 2016: all businesses are billed by volume on a sliding scale.
- Delivered in 2016: annual water consumption in Spain is divided into three categories in our Water Supply and Sanitation Study for 2016: Households, Industry and Others. As convention, we have allocated the results of Industry and Others in the field of “industry and billed water consumption”.
- Including Liechtenstein.
- Households and small business in 2016: forecasted for 2016 of data in year 2014.
- Industry in 2016: adjusted by using the data of total annual water consumption.
- United States of America
- Delivered in 2016: no data for industry and unbilled water consumption.
- Small business in 2014: institutional 15,77 mio m³ and commercial/industrial 22,43 mio m³ and others 13,39 mio m³.
Explanation notes for graphs and tables concerning charges
- Charges 2017: charges for wastewater treatment are included in sewerage taxes. Bill is not depending on the volume of consumption.
- Charges 2017 for 200 m³ are calculated for a household of 5 persons. There is a discount for the fixed charge drinking water and environmental charges per resident living in that household.
- Charges 2017 for 100 m³ are calculated for a household of 3 persons. There is a discount for the fixed charge drinking water and environmental charges per resident living in that household.
- Charges 2017: tariffs for 3 services (water supply, sewerage and waste water treatment are billed per m3 consumed. No fixed or variable components are applied. VAT is 20%.
- Charges 2017: tariffs in Sofia and Burgas are established in 2017, in Pleven and Razgrad in 2016, and in Stara Zagora in 2012.
- Czech Republic
- Charges 2017: variable component includes all other taxes and charges applied in the Czech Republic, for example water abstraction, wastewater discharges, etc.
- Charges 2017: rate 15% VAT.
- Charges 2017: waste water treatment charges includes the charges for sewerage.
- England & Wales
- Waste water treatment charges 2015+2017: sewerage charges shown include surface water drainage charges. Households in Birmingham pay for their surface water drainage either through a fixed charge based on property type or a charge based on the rateable value. The figures presented assume a ‘zone 4’ bill based on a property with a rateable value of £200 as an example.
- Waste water treatment charges 2017: sewerage charges shown include surface water drainage charges.
- Charges 2017: sewerage charges variable component based on water consumption, includes waste water treatment.
- Other charges 2017: service charge or fixed bill component sewerage including waste water treatment.
- Charges 2015+2017: VAT of 5% on drinking water and VAT of 10% on sewerage and waste water components.
- Macao, China
- In comparison with the data of 2015 the charges for 200 m³ are decreased in 2017. Due to the domestic consumption has considerably increased in the past few years, therefore, we have also included the domestic customers in the 2017 data.
- There are no regional differences in water rates.
- Charges for a 3 persons household.
- Variable charges 2015+2017: increasing block tariff at €1,3965/m3 up to 33m3/person/year and €5,1395/m3 above 33m3/person/year. Assume water consumption spread evenly over the year.
- Variable charges 2017: rates incorporate sewerage contribution.
- Other charges drinking water 2015+2017 for Rotterdam and Den Haag: other charges are distribution and concession reimbursements (“precario”).
- Waste water treatment charges 2017: 100 m³ of drinking water pertains to a household consisting of 2,2 inhabitants, they receive a bill for 3 pollution units.
- Other charges 2015+2017: tap water tax.
- Charges 2017: Rotterdam is Water Authority HHSK.
- Charges 2015+2017: separate tariffs for sewerage (tariff to municipality) and for wastewater treatment (tariff to water authority).
- Other charges 2017 for Lisbon: additional value charged to consumers by the operator of the city of Lisbon (EPAL) that is aimed at compensating the costs of the water consumed by the municipality of Lisbon.
- Charges 2015 in Constanta: during summer the population supplied is over 1 000 000 inhabitants due the seaside areas.
- Charges 2015 in Bucharest: population data are calculated based on clients declaration. All citizens have access to water supply and sewerage services.
- Charges 2015: in Scotland the majority of domestic properties pay their water charges based upon the rateable value of the property. The rateable value is a value ascribed to a domestic or commercial building based on its size, location, and other factors, and is used to determine the local tax payable by its owner to the local authority. The rateable value is assigned to one of 8 bands – A to H and a property is allocated to a band, with Band A properties generally being the smallest properties.
- Charges 2017: In Scotland all public supply is charged at a fixed rate (unmetered) and collected by local authorities along with council (local property) tax. It is banded according to the value of the property but the levels of charges are the same everywhere. This link gives the table with the banded rates. http://www.scottishwater.co.uk/you-and-your-home/your-charges/2018-19-charges/2018-19-umc. If households are in receipt of benefit or a single adult, there is a reduction. There is a separate charge for water and for sewerage though most people and certainly in urban areas have both elements of public supply. Banded tariffs for water start at £134,66/pa and rise (8 bands) to £404,82/pa. Banded charges for wastewater start at £156,66/pa and rise to £469,98/pa.
- Charges 2015: In general, water tariffs in Spain have fixed rates and increasing block depending on how much water is consumed. Nevertheless, in some part of the water cycle (for example sewer system) and depending on the city the price is set via a flat rate or uniform rate.
- Charges 2017: The drinking water bill for all cities (Madrid, Barcelona, Bilbao, Sevilla and Valencia) consists of both variable and fixed components. But as we perform our tariff studies in Spain, we do not separate fixed and variable component. So as a convention, we have decided to include the drinking water bill on variable component. We also have variable and fixed components in sewerage and waste water treatment services, but in our tariff studies we do not separate each concept. VAT in Spain for water services is 10% of the total value for the majority of concepts included on the bill.
- Charges 2015+2017: calculated for a household in a six-flat-apartment.
- VAT on drinking water 2017: 8% VAT on drinking water.
- Sewerage charges 2017 including waste water treatment.
- VAT on sewerage 2017: 2,5% VAT.
- Other charges 2017: environmental cleaning tax.
- Other charges drinking water 2017 for Istanbul: maintenance cost.
- Charges 2015: the Corporation applies a uniform tariff across all consumer categories in all its areas of operation. The domestic rate/tariff is uniform in all the Corporation’s operational areas.
- Charges 2015: fixed charge is the same across all the operational areas.
- Fixed charges 2015 for domestic customers.
- Sewerage charge for domestic customers in 2015 is 20% of water bill for MWSC, NWSC and 30% for LWSC&KWSC and 40% NWWSC and KWSC.
- Other charges 2015: Sanitation surcharge at 2,5% of water bill, except for NKANA WSC (NWSC) at 3%.
Explanation notes for graphs and tables concerning consumption and average household size*
(*) household size: average number of people living in one household
|Country||Household size in 2014||Household size in 2016|
|Hong Kong, China||2,9||2,8|
|England & Wales||2,4||2,41|
|United States of America||2,54||2,54|
- Consumption 2016: the billed volume includes industry, administrations and all other consumers.
- Consumption of 2010 and 2012 in cities Espoo, Helsinki and Vantaa: total invoiced consumption of Helsinki Region Environmental Services Authority (operating in cities of Espoo, Kauniainen, Helsinki and Vantaa).
- Consumption 2010: including use by municipality and institutions (schools…).
- Consumption 2014+2016: only the billed water consumption for households.
- In Scotland the majority of domestic properties pay their water charges based upon the rateable value of the property. The rateable value is a value ascribed to a domestic or commercial building based on its size, location, and other factors, and is used to determine the local tax payable by its owner to the local authority. The rateable value is assigned to one of 8 bands – A to H and a property is allocated to a band, with Band A properties generally being the smallest properties.
- Data for 2014 are from year 2012 National Survey AEAS.
- Data for 2016 is the average water consumption for household of Metropolitan Areas of Spain (all these cities are metropolitan areas).
- Data of 2016 based on the total invoiced consumption in 2016.
- data 2014 from Metropolitan Waterworks Authority = average for Bangkok, Nonthaburi and Samutprakan.
Explanation notes for graphs and tables concerning water regulation
Numbers of the explanation notes refer to the footnotes.
- In the scope of state asset management the tariff for water services is set by the Public Services Regulatory Commission.
- In the service area of unique operator, new investments are being implemented by government and operator (partially). In other service areas it is done by regional government and municipalities and other sources.
- Improvement of water networks, enhancement of management of system.
- Depending on annual consumption volume, currency and electricity tariff changes, the tariff for services can be regulated.
- For example on site toilets.
- Varies from state to state.
- Multi-annual tariff planning agreed with regional regulator, taking into account evolution of costs, agreed investments.
- About 75% of the Brazilian population is deserved in water and sanitation by State Owned Water Utilities, controlled by the 26 states and the Federal District. 20% are deserved by Municipal Controlled entities and 5% by Private Controlled Water Utilities. Most of the population has the tariffs controlled by about 50 Agencies of Regulation.
- Funding: the origin of the resources for investments in Water and Sanitation is: Resources of the WU 52% financing, mostly from the Brazilian Banks BNDES e CAIXA, 33 % non-reimbursable from public budgets 15%.
- The 27 Water Utilities that deserve the 75% of the Brazilian population use the so called “crossed subsides” between the municipalities they deserve and also inside each municipality. There is still the 15% of the investments arriving from public budgets.
- Energy and Water Regulatory Commission.
- EU funds.
- Only 1 PPP exists, concession contract in Sofia.
- EWRC applies “Price Cap” methodology for 5 years regulatory periods.
- According to our data, almost 100% of the population is connected to public networks.
- According to our data, around 67% of the population is connected to sewerage, and around 55% to WWTP.
- Pumping away tankers.
- Owner of het water infrastructure.
- Water tariffs are included in the list of goods with regulated prices and governed by the Law on Prices. Water tariffs are calculated by water operators based on constraints following from Law on Prices. The Ministry of Finance acts as regulating authority which supervises cost elements and prices.
- Cesspools, septic tanks, household wastewater treatment plants, root wastewater treatment plants.
- Via so called solidarity water price valid for whole larger region.
- Privately owned water companies hold licenses to provide water services in a regulated environment.
- The economic regulator (Ofwat) sets price limits (limits on the amount by which companies are allowed to vary their charges to customers).
- The physical connection to the public water supply or public sewer is funded by the developer (or self-lay organization), while the new customer pays an “infrastructure charge” to fund local reinforcement of the public system and the general customer base funds any non-local reinforcement costs.
- Water agencies and operators.
- If defined in the contract and asked by the municipalities.
- The ownership of the assets always belong to the municipalities.
- The prices are always defined and negotiated by the municipalities.
- The operators have created a solidarity fund for the low income people, social tariffs are now authorized by the law.
- Antitrust authorities.
- Management of surface waters, resource protection.
- Yes for municipalities and no for private treaters.
- In terms of legislation concerning the costs for municipality infrastructure (KAG).
- Drainage pits, septic tanks.
- Collecting sewers with special trucks and transported to WWTP-s.
- National Regulatory Authority.
- Regulatory Asset Base (That is the integrated water system need of investment to comply the medium/long term projections by the National Water Authority).
- Private Imoff.
- Grants from government for the installation of decentralized treatment systems. Grants from government for the expansion of water services.
- The water utility (Water Services Corporation) is state owned with responsibilities established at law for production, distribution, selling water and for the collection, treatment and disposal of wastewater.
- For any tariff review, the water utility submits such a request to the Regulator for Energy and Water Services. The Regulator analyses financial costs, reviews the apportionment methodology and demand projections and on the basis of such reviews water tariffs are approved or otherwise.
- The water utility may borrow and raise capital. In addition estimates of the Water Services Corporation are presented to the House of Representatives for approval or otherwise.
- All population connected to water supply.
- Discharge to private cesspits and sewage, then collected by water utility for treatment.
- Drinking water: water supply companies/Sewerage: municipalities/Sewage treatment: Regional Governments.
- Sewerage connections new buildings are financed via ground exploitation.
- Different per service: water supply, sewerage, waste water treatment.
- Maximized WACC (drinking water).
- Not applicable: in the Netherlands 100% access=100% connected.
- Individual septic tanks.
- EU investment grants, local and national funds for invest.
- Only for wastewater service, not for water service.
- Septic tank.
- Government and municipalities.
- In some cases, the water operator (in sewage and WWT) is a regional institution.
- In some cases, the water pricing (in sewage and WWT) is set by regional institution.
- The titularity of the assets cannot be transferred to private operators, because they belong to the municipalities. Activities involved in water services: operation, research, renewal, etc. can be transferred to private operators.
- The principles for water pricing in Spain are set by municipalities and water operators. There are more than 2.000 water supply systems in Spain, so it is not representative to answer the last questions. In general, all these principles are taken into account, but there is no rule which it is stablished by any authority.
- Cesspool, etc.
- Spanish water operators have a long tradition in the application of solidarity mechanisms for those customers who can have problems with the payment of water services bill. More than 80% of water operators have set solidarity mechanisms to facilitate access to water and sanitation. The most common solidarity mechanisms in Spain are:
- Water tariffs with discount, and
- Funds provided by water operator or municipality which is intended to cover the water bill for users who have economic problems. Depending on the municipality, water operators can separately apply the discount or the social fund, but there are also municipalities that provide both mechanism as an integrated solution for those users. In the end, both water tariff discounts and social funds are funded by the customers of water operators that support the costs, or via local or regional budget.
- Local private treatment facility.
- Ministry of Water & Environment.
- Development Partners.
- The tariff covers operating costs, depreciation and minor capital expenditure.
- Through tariff indexation.
- The tariff is indexed depending on changes in the macro-economic environment such as inflation, exchange rate and changes in the electricity tariff.
- On site sanitation facilities such as septic tanks and pit latrines.
- Cross subsidy on the tariff.
- Government contribution to capital investments.
- The State, development partners and utility.
- Most common approach.
- Becoming more popular.
- Rare; limiting of rate adjustments thereby limiting prices.
- The public supplier is a public corporation owned by Scottish Government. Government sets policy objectives and principles for charging.
- Independent Water Industry Commission sets prices.
- The WICS agrees an investment plan with Scottish Water and the other regulators.
- Scottish Water can and does contract out some of infrastructure work but also does this directly. More relevant are the 27 licensed providers who provide retail services only to business customers only. These are licensed by the WICS, the economic regulator. 50% of our WWTP are run under PPP schemes and these will all come back into public ownership over the next few years.
- Cost reflexive pricing for both households and businesses. Households pay banded flat charges, businesses pay flat rate plus volume charges. Price cap is used.
- Some private supply is very small scale e.g. individual wells or septic tanks. Other systems are larger and serve and are owned by relevant rural communities.
- There is limited support for private water supply, usually these costs are borne by the relevant households and businesses. There is a formula to support owners/developers who want to connect to the network.